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This article is about the scientific study of human movement. For the alternative medicine diagnostic and healing technique, see Applied kinesiology.

Kinesiology, also known as human kinetics, is the science of human movement. In the United States and most countries, kinesiology refers to a field of scientific study. In Canada, Kinesiology has been designated a regulated health profession [1] The word comes from the Greek words kinesis (movement) and kinein (to move).

The science of kinesiology addresses the physiological, mechanical, and psychological mechanisms associated with human and animal movement. Applications of kinesiology in human health include the rehabilitation professions, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as applications in the sport and exercise industries..[2] Individuals who have earned degrees in kinesiology can work in research, the fitness industry, some clinical settings, and in industrial environments.[3] Studies of human and animal motion include measures from motion tracking systems, electrophysiology of muscle and brain activity, various methods for monitoring physiological function, and other behavioral and cognitive research techniques .[4][5]

Kinesiology as described above should not be confused with applied kinesiology, a controversial[6][7][8] chiropractic diagnostic method.[9]



[edit] Basics

Scientists in the area of kinesiology study human and animal movement, performance, and function by applying the sciences of biomechanics, anatomy, physiology, psychology, and neuroscience. Applications of kinesiology in human health include the rehabilitation professions, such as physical and occupational therapy, as well as applications in the sport and exercise industries. It should be emphasized that kinesiology is a field of scientific study, and does not prepare individuals for clinical practice. A baccalaureate degree in kinesiology can provide strong preparation for graduate study in biomedical research, as well as graduate study in professional programs, such as allied health and medicine.

Whereas the term “kinesiologist” is neither a licensed nor professional designation in the United States nor most countries (with the exception of Canada), individuals with training in this area can provide consulting services, conduct research and develop policies related to rehabilitation, human motor performance, ergonomics, and occupational health and safety. In North America, kinesiologists may study to earn a Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, or Doctorate of Philosophy degree in Kinesiology or a Bachelor of Kinesiology degree, while in Australia or New Zealand, they are often conferred an Applied Science (Human Movement) degree (or higher). Many doctoral level faculty in North American kinesiology programs received their doctoral training in related disciplines, such as neuroscience, mechanical engineering, psychology, and physiology.

[edit] Physical activity

There is a large debate centered on the technical definition of physical activity. These debates range from whether or not an action is voluntary or involuntary, purposeful in direction within a specific activity, as well as the difference between movement and physical activity.[1] One way to think about the relationship between movement and physical activity is this: Movement is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for physical activity. If you are performing a physical activity, you are using movement; but not every movement is a physical activity – e.g., blinking an eye, swallowing, contraction of diaphragm.[1] One definition of physical activity is as follows: Voluntary movement intentionally performed in order to achieve a goal in sport, exercise, or any other sphere of life experience. In relation to this definition of physical activity, one definition of movement is as follows: Includes any change in the position of your body parts relative to each other.[1] Physical activity may be concluded as “the willful exertion of the body or a portion thereof with the intent of achieving a desired result, often performed repetitively.”

[edit] Scope of practice

In most countries, Kinesiology refers to an area of study and is not associated with a professional designation. In Canada, Kinesiology is a professional designation associated with the assessment of movement, performance, and function; and the rehabilitation, prevention, and management of disorders to maintain, rehabilitate, and enhance movement, performance, and function in the areas of sport, recreation, work, exercise, and general activities of daily living.[10]

Applied kinesiology (AK) is a chiropractic diagnostic and treatment modality[1] using manual muscle-strength testing for medical diagnosis and a subsequent determination of prescribed therapy. According to practitioners using Applied Kinesiology techniques, it provides feedback on the functional status of the body. AK draws together many similar therapies. It is used as an integrated, interdisciplinary approach to health care, although some chiropractic and other health practitioners use only a few AK diagnostic or treatment techniques as an adjuctive approach. George J. Goodheart, a chiropractor, originated AK in 1964[2] and began teaching it to other chiropractors.[3] An organization of Goodheart Study Group Leaders began meeting in 1973, selected the name “The International College of Applied Kinesiology” (ICAK) in 1974, adopted bylaws in 1975, elected officers in 1975, and “certified” its charter members, called “diplomates” in 1976.[4] ICAK now considers 1976 to be the date it was founded and 1973 to be the date that its first chairman took office.[5] AK is a practice within the realm of alternative medicine and is different from “kinesiology,” which is the scientific study of human movement. AK has been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds,[6] and characterized as pseudoscience[7] and quackery.[6] In Britain, the National Institute for Clinical Excellence recently ruled that it is unproven and advised against its use in allergy diagnosis [1]



[edit] History and current use

In 1964, George J. Goodheart invented Applied Kinesiology through his unique interpretation and application of Muscles: Testing and Function written by two physical therapists Kendall and Kendall.[8] While it is primarily used by chiropractors, it is now also used by a number of other practitioners.[9] In 2003 it was the 10th most frequently used chiropractic technique in the United States, with 37.6% of chiropractors employing this method and 12.9% of patients being treated with it,[10] and has also been used by naturopaths, medical doctors, dentists, nutritionists, physical therapists, massage therapists, and nurse practitioners. Some basic AK based techniques have also been used/misused by nutritional supplement distributors, including multilevel distributors.[9][11]

[edit] Basics

Applied kinesiology is a system that evaluates structural, chemical, and mental aspects of health using manual muscle testing alongside conventional diagnostic methods. The essential premise of applied kinesiology that is not shared by mainstream medical theory is that every organ dysfunction is accompanied by a weakness in a specific corresponding muscle, the viscerosomatic relationship.[11][12] Treatment modalities relied upon by practitioners include joint manipulation and mobilization, myofascial, cranial and meridian therapies, clinical nutrition, and dietary counseling.[13]

A manual muscle test in AK is conducted by having the patient resist using the target muscle or muscle group while the practitioner applies a force. A smooth response is sometimes referred to as a “strong muscle” and a response that was not appropriate is sometimes called a “weak response”. This is not a raw test of strength, but rather a subjective evaluation of tension in the muscle and smoothness of response, taken to be indicative a difference in spindle cell response during contraction. These differences in muscle response can be indicative of various stresses and imbalances in the body.[14] A weak muscle test is equated to dysfunction and chemical or structural imbalance or mental stress, indicative of suboptimal functioning.[15] It may be subobtimal functioning of the tested target muscle, or a normally optimally functioning muscle can be used as an indicator muscle for other physiological testing. A commonly known and very basic test is the arm-pull-down test, or “Delta test,” where the patient resists as the practitioner exerts a downward force on an extended arm.[8] Proper positioning is paramount to ensure that the muscle in question is isolated or positioned as the prime mover, minimizing interference from adjacent muscle groups.[12]

“Nutrient testing” is used to examine the response of various of a patient’s muscles to assorted chemicals. Gustatory and olfactory stimulation are said to alter the outcome of a manual muscle test, with previously weak muscles being strengthened by application of the correct nutritional supplement, and previously strong muscles being weakened by exposure to harmful or imbalancing substances or allergens.[12][14][16] Though its use is deprecated by the ICAK,[17] stimulation to test muscle response to a certain chemical is also done by contact or proximity (for instance, testing while the patient holds a bottle of pills). Studies of AK for nutrient or allergy testing have had positive and negative conclusions (see “Scientific Research” below.)

“Therapy localization” is another diagnostic technique using manual muscle testing which is unique to applied kinesiology. The patient places a hand which is not being tested on the skin over an area suspected to be in need of therapeutic attention. This fingertip contact may lead to a change in muscle response from strong to weak or vice versa when therapeutic intervention is indicated. If the area touched is not associated with a need for such intervention, the muscle response is unaffected.[15]

[edit] Scientific research

Pseudoscientific concepts
Subjective measurements by those trained in the ideas of applied kinesiology show the positive effects of alternative medicine ideas.
Related scientific disciplines
Physics, Biology, Psychology
Year proposed
Original proponents
George J. Goodheart
Subsequent proponents
International College of Applied Kinesiology, American Chiropractic Association

Proponents of AK cite evidence about the methods, clinical efficacy, and neurologic rationales of applied kinesiology examination and treatment.[18][19][20][21] Some studies show clinical efficacy. For example one study showed a high degree of correlation between AK muscle testing for food allergies and antibodies for those foods. The AK procedure in this study involved stimulation of taste receptors followed by muscle testing for change in strength.[20] The patient was suspected of being allergic to foods that disrupted muscle function. Blood drawn subsequently showed the presence of antibodies to the foods which were found to be allergenic through AK assessment. In another blinded study, the response of a calf muscle to an inhibitory reflex technique used in AK was studied using graphical recordings of electromyography and mechanical parameters. The study found that with good coordination between the examiner and subject, muscle inhibition was easily recorded.[21]

Other studies of Applied Kinesiology have failed to show clinical efficacy. For example, in some studies muscle testing has not been shown to distinguish a test substance from a placebo under double-blind conditions, and the use of applied kinesiology to evaluate nutrient status was not shown to be more effective than random guessing. Some scientific studies have shown that applied kinesiology tests were not reproducible.[22][23][24][25][26] A review of several scientific studies of AK-specific procedures and diagnostic tests concluded that “When AK is disentangled from standard orthopedic muscle testing, the few studies evaluating unique AK procedures either refute or cannot support the validity of AK procedures as diagnostic tests. The evidence to date does not support the use of [manual muscle testing] for the diagnosis of organic disease or pre/subclinical conditions.”[27] Another concluded that “There is little or no scientific rationale for these methods. Results are not reproducible when subject to rigorous testing and do not correlate with clinical evidence of allergy.”[28] A double-blind study was conducted by the ALTA Foundation for Sports Medicine Research in Santa Monica, California and published in the June 1988 Journal of the American Dietetic Association. The study used 3 experienced AK practitioners and concluded that, “The results of this study indicated that the use of Applied Kinesiology to evaluate nutrient status is no more useful than random guessing.”[29]

One review of the literature identified methodological problems with previous AK studies[19]

Some of the studies, research and reviews of applied kinesiology mentioned above are listed at the National Library of Medicine and National Institutes of Health.[24][25][29][30][31][32][33]

[edit] Criticism

Nearly all AK tests are subjective, relying solely on practitioner assessment of muscle response. Specifically, some studies have shown test-retest reliability, inter-tester reliability, and accuracy to have no better than chance correlations.[11][25][34] Some skeptics have argued that there is no scientific understanding of the proposed underlying theory of a viscerosomatic relationship, and the efficacy of the modality is unestablished in some cases and doubtful in others.[11][16] Skeptics have also dismissed AK as “quackery,” “magical thinking,” and a misinterpretation of the ideomotor effect.[6][35] It has also been criticized on theoretical and empirical grounds,[6] and characterized as pseudoscience.[7] With only anecdotal accounts providing positive evidence for the efficacy of the practice, a review of peer-reviewed studies concluded that the “evidence to date does not support the use of [AK] for the diagnosis of organic disease or pre/subclinical conditions.”[27]

[edit] Position statements

[edit] American Chiropractic Association

According to the American Chiropractic Association, in 2003 Applied Kinesiology was the 10th most frequently used chiropractic technique in the United States, with 37.6% of chiropractors employing this method and 12.9% of patients being treated with it.[10]

“This is an approach to chiropractic treatment in which several specific procedures may be combined. Diversified/manipulative adjusting techniques may be used with nutritional interventions, together with light massage of various points referred to as neurolymphatic and neurovascular points. Clinical decision-making is often based on testing and evaluating muscle strength.”[3]

[edit] Danish Chiropractic Association

According to a March 26, 1998 letter from the DKF (Dansk Kiropractor-Forening – Danish Chiropractic Association), following public complaints from patients receiving homeopathic care and/or AK instead of standard (DKF defined) chiropractic care, the DKF has determined that applied kinesiology is not a form of chiropractic care and must not be presented to the public as such. AK and homeopathy can continue to be practiced by chiropractors as long as it is noted to be alternative and adjunctive to chiropractic care and is not performed in a chiropractic clinic. Chiropractors may not infer or imply that the Danish chiropractic profession endorses AK to be legitimate or effective, nor may the word/title chiropractic/chiropractor be used or associated with the practice of AK.

Applied Kinesiology (AK) (also known as Contact Reflex Analysis, Dental Kinesiology, or Behavioral Kinesiology) is a procedure in which resistance-response (aka, “muscle strength testing”) explorations of an extended arm or leg is “tested” while a person is subjected to various influences (foods, vitamins, herbs, homeopathic remedies, music, colors, etc.). Weak responses are interpreted as “bad,” and strong responses as “good.” These form the basis for making diagnoses, prescriptions, food selections, or other health-related choices. Note: AK is not part of the science of kinesiology (the study of the principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement).

AK has been associated with a number of cases of serious harm. A New York chiropractor used it to demonstrate alleged improvements in learning disabled children [1,2]. The physical and psychological damage done to the kids by his treatments resulted in a $565,000 jury award [3]. On the instructions of a holistic dentist, AK was employed as a way of testing the “purity” of foods by the family of a diabetic who died while trying to substitute vitamins for insulin. His wife (an RN!) refused to accept the reality of his death keeping his mummified body in the house for 8-years [4]. The technique was used by a clinical ecologist to tell a mother that her children were not allergic to peanuts with the result that when given peanut butter their allergic reactions nearly killed them. He eventually lost his license to practice medicine for employing nonscientific techniques [5]. AK was used by an Arizona chiropractor to assure a patient that she did not have cancer [6]. She subsequently died due to lack of treatment. He was suspended from practice [7].

Controlled studies of AK muscle-testing have repeatedly shown that responses are random under conditions where both the tester and test subject are unaware of the substance being tested [8-10], but the AK experience can be very persuasive under uncontrolled conditions because people can definitely feel the differences in responses. The subjective experience can be overwhelming and turns many patients into believers. AK’s originator, chiropractor George Goodheart, [11] organized the International College of Applied Kinesiology (ICAK) in an effort to gain some control over the practice and its claims. Goodheart once expressed skepticism about using AK to choose one’s personal lucky star (subjects were tested while pointing at various candidate stars). Over time, ICAK has become more conservative in its claims for AK and subsequently stated that it is not valid used by itself [12].

Explanations of what is actually happening in AK responses include trickery by practitioners, who may vary the point of contact on the lever (arm or leg) thus improving their mechanical advantage whenever they want to obtain a weak response; or, who catch the subject off-guard to elicit weakness versus telegraphing the test thus allowing a split-second for the subject to prepare their response. However, having studied AK extensively, I believe that it is a mistake to dismiss all AK practitioners as tricksters. Some may be fooling themselves through the uncontrolled use of a potentially useful psychological assessment tool. Just as Mesmerism unwittingly exploited the power of suggestion — the same potent psychophysiologic phenomenon of clinical hypnosis — AK might provide a way to test psychological make-up of subjects (eg, conditioning, expectation, suggestibility or other personality factors). On the other hand, AK could turn out to be unreliable or not as good as other tests now in use. I don’t know of anyone who is studying AK scientifically to find any valid use.


  1. Ferreri C, Dyslexia and learning disorders cured, Health Freedom News 10/83
  2. Cooke, The Crescent City cure, Hippocrates Nov-Dec, 1988.
  3. Ludlow L. Del Norte jury puts squeeze on chiropractor, San Francisco Examiner 1/29/91.
  4. Smith W (Chicago Tribune), “Body kept mummified for 8-1/2 years connected to Chicago health cult, York Daily Record, Feb 14, 1989.
  5. Dr. Korman misconduct report Ontario College of Physicians & Surgeons, Feb. 1989.
  6. Deal S. Detect cancer muscle tests, Cancer News J. 1976:10:(6)
  7. Chiropractor’s license to be suspended in cancer-complaint case [Sheldon Deal, DC] Az Daily Star 2/23/84.
  8. Freidman, Applied kinesiology–double-blind pilot study, J Prosthetic Dent 1981;45:321-3.
  9. Triano. Muscle strength testing as a diagnostic screen for supplemental nutr therapy: a blind study, J Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics, 1982;5:179-82.
  10. Kenney J. Applied Kinesiology unreliable for assessing nutr status, J Am Diet Assoc, 1988;88:698
  11. McCord. Applied Kinesiology: an historical overview, Digest Chiro Economics 9-10/91.
  12. Applied Kinesiology Status Statement, International College of Applied Kinesiology–USA, 6/16/92.

Additional Resources

  • Applied Kinesiology Status Statement (ICAK, 1992) Townsend Letter 6/93
  • Review of Research published by the International College of A-K, 1981-7 (Klinkoski) J Manipulative & Physiological Therapeutics 1990;13:190-4
  • A brief look at Contact Reflex Analysis [Versendaal] (Barrett) Skeptical Briefs 1994;4:(2):8-9
  • Kinesiolgy for the 21st century; How to Access the “Cosmic Control Center” (Computer Central Clearinghouse)
  • Barrett S. The Health Robbers. Prometheus. 1993.
  • Barrett, Jarvis, London, Kroger. Consumer Health: A Guide to Intelligent Decisions, 6th Edition. Brown & Benchmark, 1997. (A college textbook)
  • Barrett & Herbert. The Vitamin Pushers. Prometheus, 1994.
  • Butler K. A Consumer’s Guide to “Alternative Medicine.” Prometheus, 1992.
  • Magner G. Chiropractic: the victim’s perspective. Prometheus, 1995.
  • Raso J. “Alternative” Healthcare: A Comprehensive Guide. Prometheus, 1994.
  • Zwicky, Hafner, Barrett, Jarvis. Reader’s Guide to “Alternative” Health Methods. Am Med Assoc, 1993.

George Goodhart is credited with taking the theory of kinesiology further to a way of identifying the relationship between certain muscles and their corresponding organs or organ systems. According to his theory, a weak response to stimulus of a muscle can signal the poor condition of its related organ. The interrupted or partly blocked neural impulses that communicate proper function to both organs and muscles could result from a dietary problem, an overload of toxins, or a skeletal problem, among other reasons.

Obviously to those familiar with alternative therapies, this theory has similarities to others such as reflexology, acupuncture and acupressure, and the manual manipulation of joints and muscles. However, AP focuses on muscle and organ interdependence rather than on the stimulation of pressure points or the realignment of the skeletal system.

Kinesiology is based on an understanding of body movement and organ function as directed by signals from the brain. These electrical impulses are transmitted via the spinal cord and the nervous system. Applied kinesiology takes this understanding as the basis of a practical application, in using the muscle response to assess the functionality of hidden organs. Rather than invasive examinations such as X-rays and biopsies, AP uses external and harmless means to gain information.

Once a diagnosis has been made, one or more therapeutic approaches may be used to effect the desired improvement. Skeletal manipulation by a chiropractor of the spine or the joints, nutritional counseling, herbal supplements, and acupressure or puncture are some alternative therapies many clinics use to complement each other. Total body health is addressed in strengthening one part of it, rather than trying to address an isolated symptom such as hives or pain.

Finding a remedy for a weak area of the body can be approached by different means. If the blockage is structural, chiropractic manipulation of joints and the spine may help. If poor diet or deficiencies of essential nutrients are implicated, the actual substance can be used to identify the best agent to employ.

AK is used to choose the most effective therapeutic approach as well. To find a helpful substance in treating dietary concerns, or the correct homeopathic or herbal remedy, the practitioner will ask the client to hold a substance that might prove helpful. The already diagnosed weak muscle response will be checked again to see if it has changed. A stronger response indicates that the substance will be beneficial, while no change will indicate something else should be tried.

When a New York city chiropractor explains applied kinesiology to a prospective client, it may well be in a free consultation that may be scheduled as the first step on the journey to renewed health and well being.

Dr. Louis Granirer is a renowned New York City Chiropractor [], and owner of the Holistic Chiropractic Center in NYC. In addition to traditional chiropractic services, Dr. Granirer is a Holistic Health Practitioner and helps people restore feelings of overall wellness.

Article Source:

Applied kinesiology


Applied kinesiology (AK) is the study of muscles and the relationship of muscle strength to health. It incorporates a system of manual muscle testing and therapy. AK is based on the theory that an organ dysfunction is accompanied by a specific muscle weakness. Diseases are diagnosed through muscle-testing procedures and then treated. AK is not the same as kinesiology, or biomechanics, which is the scientific study of movement.


AK is based on principles of functional neurology, anatomy, physiology, biomechanics, and biochemistry as well as principles from Chinese medicine, acupuncture , and massage. It was developed from traditional kinesiology in 1964 by George G. Goodheart, a chiropractor from Detroit, Michigan. He observed that each large muscle relates to a body organ. A weakness in a muscle may mean that there is a problem in the associated

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Applied Kinesiology and Kinesiologic Medicine

 kinesiology muscle information network Applied Kinesiology, AK

(George Goodheart, DC. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Clinical Kinesiology, CK
(Alan Beardall, DC. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Touch for Health Kinesiology, TFH
(John F. Thie, DC. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Metabolics – Functional Biochemistry
(Chris Astill-Smith, DO – England)

 kinesiology muscle information network Applied Physiology, AP
(Richard D. Utt – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Neural Organization Techniques, NOT
(Carl Fererri, DC. – USA) (Trevor Savage, Australia)

 kinesiology muscle information network Professional Kinesiology Practice, PKP
(Bruce Dewe, MD. / Joan Dewe – New Zealand)

 kinesiology muscle information network Systematic Kinesiology
(Brian Butler – England, UK )

 kinesiology muscle information network Neuro Emotional Technique, NET
(Scott Walker, DC. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Foundation Clinical Kinesiology
(Richard Holding, DO. – England, UK)

 kinesiology muscle information network Manual Kinesiology, MAK
(Mac Pompeius Wolontis – Sweden)

 kinesiology muscle information network Specialized Kinesiology – Energy Kinesiology
WWW-links to the major web sites about Specialized Kinesiology, SK and Energy Kinesiology.
Specialized Kinesiology and Energy Kinesiology

 kinesiology muscle information network Touch for Health, TFH
(John F. Thie, DC. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Educational Kinesiology / Brain Gym
(Paul Dennison – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Wellness Kinesiology
(Wayne W. Topping, PhD. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Applied Physiology, AP
(Richard D. Utt – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Health Kinesiology, HK
(Jimmy Scott, PhD. – Canada)

 kinesiology muscle information network One Brain
(Gordon Stokes – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Professional Kinesiology Practice, PKP
(Bruce Dewe, MD. / Joan Dewe – New Zealand)

 kinesiology muscle information network Neuroenergetic Psychology
(Richard Duree / Shanti Duree – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Energetic Kinesiology
(Hugo Tobar – Australia)

 kinesiology muscle information network Neural Systems Kinesiology
(Hugo Tobar – Australia)

 kinesiology muscle information network Kinergetics
(Philip Rafferty – Australia)

 kinesiology muscle information network Biokinesiology, BK
(John Barton – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Neural Organization Techniques, NOT
(Carl Fererri, DC. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network LEAP – Learning Enhancement Advanced Program
(Charles T. Krebs – Australia / Susan McCrossin – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Transformational Kinesiology, TK
(Grethe Fremming / Rolf Hausbøl – Denmark)

 kinesiology muscle information network Cyberkinetics – Cybernetic Kinesiology
(Alan Sales – England, UK)

 kinesiology muscle information network Human Ecology Balancing Science, HEBS
(Steven Rochlitz – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Neural Therapy / Psycho-Kinesiology
(Dietrich Klinghardt, MD. PhD. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network HoloDynamic Kinesiology, HDK
(William C. Gustafson, DC. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Extreme Kinesiology, XK
(William C. Gustafson, DC. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Aromatic Kinesiology
(Robbi Zeck – Australia)

 kinesiology muscle information network Wholistic Kinesiology
(J. Dunn, DC. – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Synergistic Kinesiology
(Stephanie Relfe – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network EnergyField Kinesiology, EF-K
(André Gauer – Switzerland)

 kinesiology muscle information network Intuitive Kinesiology
(Carol Dewitt – USA)

 kinesiology muscle information network Integrative Kinesiology, IK
(Trevor K. Savage, ND. – Australia)

 kinesiology muscle information network Chiro+Plus Kinesiology, CPK
(Milton E. Dowty, DC. – USA)

Welcome to Kinesiology Cape Town, Mother City of Africa, and the Western Cape, an area which is regarded as one of the most beautiful regions in the world. The City is a rare cultural gem, resulting from the amalgamation of Indonesian, French, Dutch, British and German settlers, the local Bushman and Hottentot tribes and the Bantu tribes from the north.
Blouberg beach
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The impressive presence of Table Mountain, flanked by the legendary Devil’s Peak and historical Signal Hill, stands proudly above the city. Beautiful white sandy beaches along a peaceful coastline frame the Cape Peninsula, which is famed for its unique floral kingdom, bountiful rivers, vleis and dams and magnificent countryside. The surrounding area extends far into the winelands, green in summer and red-gold in autumn.
Camps Bay beach
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Kinesiology Cape Town boasts a multitude of entertainment, ranging from outdoor activities and adventures in the sun to a roaring night life under neon signs. The vast range of shopping opportunities includes haggling with shopholders at Greenmarket Square Flea Market, as well as breezing through sophisticated and stylish shopping malls. The huge variety of restaurants reflects the multicultured history of the Cape and caters for everyone’s taste, from fast-food outlets and casual to the chic to the very elegant.
Kinesiology Cape Town City
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Kinesiology Cape Town provides a setting for many scenic wonders, magnificent seascapes and panoramic vistas. The beautiful coastal areas of Camps Bay, Clifton, Llandudno, Bantry Bay, Hout Bay and Blouberg surround the breathtaking tranquility of the winelands, Constantia, Stellenbosch, Paarl and Franshhoek.

Kinesiology Cape Town is a city of culture, built on a history that reflects in the architecture, cuisine, music and dance. Together with a warm summer and temperate winter climate and a friendly community, the Western Cape and the Mother City are an ideal holiday destination throughout the year.

Kinesiology Cape Town (Afrikaans: Kaapstad; Xhosa: iKapa) is the second-most populous city in South Africa,[3] and the largest in land area, forming part of the City of Kinesiology Cape Town metropolitan municipality. It is the provincial capital and primate city of the Western Cape, as well as the legislative capital of South Africa, where the National Parliament and many government offices are located. The city is famous for its harbour as well as its natural setting in the Cape floral kingdom, including such well-known landmarks as Table Mountain and Cape Point. It is hailed as one of the most beautiful cities in the world as officially recognised by Forbes.[6] National Geographic has also listed Kinesiology Cape Town as one of the most iconic cities on the planet and “Places of a Lifetime”.[7] Kinesiology Cape Town is also Africa’s most popular tourist destination.[8]

Located on the shore of Table Bay, Kinesiology Cape Town was originally developed by the Dutch East India Company as a victualling (supply) station for Dutch ships sailing to Eastern Africa, India, and the Far East. Jan van Riebeeck’s arrival on 6 April 1652 established the first permanent European settlement in South Africa. Kinesiology Cape Town quickly outgrew its original purpose as the first European outpost at the Castle of Good Hope, becoming the economic and cultural hub of the Cape Colony. Until the Witwatersrand Gold Rush and the development of Johannesburg, Kinesiology Cape Town was the largest city in South Africa.

Today it is one of the most multicultural cities in the world, reflecting its role as a major destination for immigrants and expatriates to South Africa. As of 2007[update] the city had an estimated population of 3.5 million.[3] Kinesiology Cape Town’s land area of 2,455 square kilometres (948 sq mi) is larger than other South African cities, resulting in a comparatively lower population density of 1,425 inhabitants per square kilometre (3,690 /sq mi).[2]

* 1 History
* 2 Geography
o 2.1 Climate
* 3 Suburbs
o 3.1 City Bowl
o 3.2 Northern Suburbs
o 3.3 Eastern Suburbs
o 3.4 Atlantic Seaboard
o 3.5 Southern Suburbs
o 3.6 South Peninsula
o 3.7 Cape Flats
o 3.8 West Coast
* 4 Government
* 5 Demographics
* 6 Economy
* 7 Tourism
* 8 Communications and media
* 9 Sport
o 9.1 Sports events
* 10 Education
o 10.1 Tertiary education
* 11 Transport
* 12 Twin towns—Sister cities
* 13 See also
* 14 References
* 15 External links

[edit] History
Main article: History of Kinesiology Cape Town
A painting of the arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in Table Bay (by Charles Bell)

There is no certainty as to when humans first occupied the area prior to the first visits of Europeans in the 15th century. The earliest known remnants in the region were found at Peers cave in Fish Hoek and date to between 15,000 and 12,000 years ago.[9] Little is known of the history of the region’s first residents, since there is no written history from the area before it was first mentioned by Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias in 1486. Vasco da Gama recorded a sighting of the Cape of Good Hope in 1497, and the area did not have regular contact with Europeans until 1652, when Jan van Riebeeck and other employees of the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Verenigde Oost-indische Compagnie, VOC) were sent to the Cape to establish a way-station for ships travelling to the Dutch East Indies, and the Fort de Goede Hoop (later replaced by the Castle of Good Hope). The city grew slowly during this period, as it was hard to find adequate labour. This labour shortage prompted the city to import slaves from Indonesia and Madagascar. Many of these became ancestors of the first Cape Coloured communities.

During the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars, the Netherlands was repeatedly occupied by France, and Great Britain moved to take control of Dutch colonies. Britain captured Kinesiology Cape Town in 1795, but the Cape was returned to the Netherlands by treaty in 1803. British forces occupied the Cape again in 1806 following the battle of Bloubergstrand. In the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814, Kinesiology Cape Town was permanently ceded to Britain. It became the capital of the newly formed Cape Colony, whose territory expanded very substantially through the 1800s.[citation needed]

The discovery of diamonds in Griqualand West in 1867, and the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886, prompted a flood of immigrants to South Africa.[citation needed] Conflicts between the Boer republics in the interior and the British colonial government resulted in the Second Boer War of 1899-1902, which Britain won. In 1910, Britain established the Union of South Africa, which unified the Cape Colony with the two defeated Boer Republics and the British colony of Natal. Kinesiology Cape Town became the legislative capital of the Union, and later of the Republic of South Africa.
Nobel Square at the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront.

In the 1948 national elections, the National Party won on a platform of apartheid (racial segregation) under the slogan of “swart gevaar”. This led to the Group Areas Act, which classified all areas according to race. Formerly multi-racial suburbs of Kinesiology Cape Town were either purged of unlawful residents or demolished. The most infamous example of this in Kinesiology Cape Town was District Six. After it was declared a whites-only region in 1965, all housing there was demolished and over 60,000 residents were forcibly removed.[10] Many of these residents were relocated to the Cape Flats and Lavender Hill. Under apartheid, the Cape was considered a “Coloured labour preference area”, to the exclusion of “Bantus”, i.e. blacks.

Kinesiology Cape Town was home to many leaders of the anti-apartheid movement. On Robben Island, a former penitentiary island 10-kilometres from the city, many famous political prisoners were held for years. In one of the most famous moments marking the end of apartheid, Nelson Mandela made his first public speech in decades on 11 February 1990 from the balcony of Kinesiology Cape Town City Hall hours after being released. His speech heralded the beginning of a new era for the country, and the first democratic election was held four years later, on 27 April 1994. Nobel Square in the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront features statues of South Africa’s four Nobel Peace Prize winners – Albert Luthuli, Desmond Tutu, F. W. de Klerk and Nelson Mandela. Since 1994, the city has struggled with problems such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, a surge in violent drug-related crime and more recent xenophobic violence. At the same time, the economy has surged to unprecedented levels due to the boom in the tourism and the real estate industries.[citation needed]
[edit] Geography
Kinesiology Cape Town seen from Spot satellite
A Landsat image of Kinesiology Cape Town overlaid on SRTM elevation data. Elevation is exaggerated by a factor of two.

The centre of Kinesiology Cape Town is located at the northern end of the Cape Peninsula. Table Mountain forms a dramatic backdrop to the City Bowl, with its plateau over 1,000 m (3,300 ft) high; it is surrounded by near-vertical cliffs, Devil’s Peak and Lion’s Head. Sometimes a thin strip of cloud forms over the mountain, and owing to its appearance, it is colloquially known as the “tablecloth”. The peninsula consists of a dramatic mountainous spine jutting southwards into the Atlantic Ocean, ending at Cape Point. There are over 70 peaks above 1,000 feet (300 m) (the American definition of a mountain) within Kinesiology Cape Town’s official city limits. Many of the suburbs of Kinesiology Cape Town are on the large plain of the Cape Flats, which joins the peninsula to the mainland. The Cape Flats lie on what is known as a rising marine plain, consisting mostly of sandy geology which shows that at one point Table Mountain itself was an island.[citation needed]
[edit] Climate
Kinesiology Cape Town
Climate chart (explanation)
J     F     M     A     M     J     J     A     S     O     N     D
























average max. and min. temperatures in °C
precipitation totals in mm
source: HKO[11]
[show]Imperial conversion
J     F     M     A     M     J     J     A     S     O     N     D
























average max. and min. temperatures in °F
precipitation totals in inches

The Cape Peninsula has a Subtropical Mediterranean climate (Koppen Csb), with mild, wet winters, and dry and very warm summers. In winter time, which lasts from the beginning of June to end of August, large cold fronts come across from the Atlantic Ocean with heavy precipitation and strong north-westerly winds. The winter months are cool, with an average minimum of 7.0 °C (45 °F) and maximum of 17.5 °C (63 °F).[12] Most of the city’s annual rainfall occurs in wintertime, but due to the mountainous topography of the city, rainfall amounts for specific areas can vary dramatically. Newlands, to the south of the city, is the wettest suburb in South Africa.[13] The valleys and coastal plains average 515 millimetres (20.3 in) of rain per annum, while mountain areas can average as much as 1,500 millimetres (59 in) per annum.

Summer, which lasts from November to March, is warm and dry. The Peninsula gets frequent strong winds from the south-east, known locally as the Cape Doctor, because it blows away pollution and cleans the air. The south-easterly wind is caused by a high-pressure system which sits in the South Atlantic to the west of Kinesiology Cape Town, known as the South-Atlantic High. Summer temperatures are mild, with an average maximum of 26.5 °C (80 °F). Kinesiology Cape Town can be uncomfortably hot when the Berg Wind, meaning “mountain wind” blows from the Karoo interior for a couple of weeks in February or early March.

Water temperatures range greatly, between 10 °C (50 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard, to 22°C (72°F) in False Bay. Average annual Ocean temperatures are between 13 °C (55 °F) on the Atlantic Seaboard (similar to Californian waters, such as San Francisco or Big Sur), and 17 °C (63 °F) in False Bay (similar to Northern Mediterranean temperatures, such as Nice or Monte Carlo).
[hide]Climate data for Kinesiology Cape Town (1961-1990)
Month     Jan     Feb     Mar     Apr     May     Jun     Jul     Aug     Sep     Oct     Nov     Dec     Year
Average high °C (°F)     26.1
(79)     26.5
(79.7)     25.4
(77.7)     23.0
(73.4)     20.3
(68.5)     18.1
(64.6)     17.5
(63.5)     17.8
(64)     19.2
(66.6)     21.3
(70.3)     23.5
(74.3)     24.9
(76.8)     22.0
Average low °C (°F)     15.7
(60.3)     15.6
(60.1)     14.2
(57.6)     11.9
(53.4)     9.4
(48.9)     7.8
(46)     7.0
(44.6)     7.5
(45.5)     8.7
(47.7)     10.6
(51.1)     13.2
(55.8)     14.9
(58.8)     11.4
Rainfall mm (inches)     15
(0.59)     17
(0.67)     20
(0.79)     41
(1.61)     69
(2.72)     93
(3.66)     82
(3.23)     77
(3.03)     40
(1.57)     30
(1.18)     14
(0.55)     17
(0.67)     515
Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)     5.5     4.6     4.8     8.3     11.4     13.3     11.8     13.7     10.4     8.7     4.9     6.2     103.6
Sunshine hours     337.9     299.9     291.4     234.0     204.6     174.0     192.2     210.8     225.0     279.0     309.0     334.8     3,092.2
Source: Hong Kong Observatory[11]
[edit] Suburbs
Main article: List of Kinesiology Cape Town suburbs
[edit] City Bowl
Panorama of the City Bowl from Lion’s Head.
Main article: City Bowl

The City Bowl is a natural amphitheatre-shaped area bordered by Table Bay and defined by the mountains of Signal Hill, Lion’s Head, Table Mountain and Devil’s Peak.

The area includes the central business district of Kinesiology Cape Town, the harbour, the Company’s Garden, and the residential suburbs of De Waterkant, Devil’s Peak, District Six, Zonnebloem, Gardens, Higgovale, Oranjezicht, Schotsche Kloof, Tamboerskloof, University Estate, Vredehoek, Walmer Estate and Woodstock.
[edit] Northern Suburbs

The Northern Suburbs include Bellville, Bothasig, Brooklyn, Burgundy Estate, Durbanville, Edgemead, Elsie’s River, Facreton, Goodwood, Kensington, Maitland, Monte Vista, Panorama, Parow, Richwood, Thornton, Table View, and Welgemoed.
[edit] Eastern Suburbs

The Eastern Suburbs include Fairdale, Brackenfell, Kraaifontein, Kuils River, Blue Downs, Belhar and Protea Hoogte.
[edit] Atlantic Seaboard
Camps Bay as seen from the ascent to Lion’s Head.
A panoramic view of Hout Bay from Chapman’s Peak. Chapman’s Peak Drive can be seen at the base of the mountain.

The Atlantic Seaboard includes Bantry Bay, Camps Bay, Clifton, Fresnaye, Green Point, Hout Bay, Llandudno, Mouille Point, Sea Point, and Three Anchor Bay.
[edit] Southern Suburbs
Main article: Southern Suburbs, Kinesiology Cape Town

The Southern Suburbs include Rondebosch, Claremont, Plumstead, Ottery, Pinelands, Wynberg, Newlands, Bergvliet, Constantia and Bishopscourt.
[edit] South Peninsula
The historical centre of Simon’s Town

The South Peninsula is generally regarded as the area south of Muizenberg on the Indian Ocean and Noordhoek on the Atlantic Ocean, all the way to Cape Point. Until recently quite rural, the population of the area is growing quickly as new coastal developments proliferate and larger plots are subdivided to provide more compact housing. It includes Capri Village, Clovelly, Fish Hoek, Glencairn, Kalk Bay, Kommetjie, Masiphumelele, Muizenberg, Noordhoek, Ocean View, Scarborough, Simon’s Town, St James, Sunnydale, and Sun Valley.
[edit] Cape Flats
Main article: Cape Flats

The Cape Flats is an expansive, low-lying, flat area situated to the southeast of the central business district of Kinesiology Cape Town. To most people in Kinesiology Cape Town, the area is known simply as ‘The Flats’.

Described by some as ‘apartheid’s dumping ground’, from the 1950s the area became home to people the apartheid government designated as non-White. Race-based legislation such as the Group Areas Act and pass laws either forced non-white people out of more central urban areas designated for white people and into government-built townships in the Flats, or made living in the area illegal, forcing many people designated as Black into informal settlements elsewhere in the Flats. The Flats have since then been home to much of the population of Greater Kinesiology Cape Town.
[edit] West Coast

The West Coast suburbs of Kinesiology Cape Town include Bloubergstrand, Milnerton, Tableview, West Beach, Atlantis, Melkbosstrand, Big Bay, Sunset Beach, Sunningdale and Parklands.
[edit] Government
Kinesiology Cape Town City Hall.
Main article: City of Kinesiology Cape Town

Kinesiology Cape Town’s local government is the City of Kinesiology Cape Town, which is a metropolitan municipality. Kinesiology Cape Town is governed by a 210-member city council. The city is divided into 105 electoral wards; each ward directly elects one member of the council, whilst the other 105 councillors are elected by a party-list proportional representation system. The Executive Mayor and Executive Deputy Mayor are chosen by the city council.

In the most recent local government elections, the Democratic Alliance (DA) was the largest single party with 90 of the 210 seats on the council, ahead of the African National Congress’s 81 seats, but with no party holding a majority.[14] After a number of party defections and byelection successes, the DA now has 97 members. The DA is currently in a coalition with the Independent Democrats and the United Democratic Movement. The coalition has 114 members, giving it a comfortable majority.

Former Executive Mayor Helen Zille of the Democratic Alliance resigned on 29 April 2009 as a result of her election to the Western Cape Provincial Parliament and subsequent election as Premier of the Western Cape Province. The City Council elected Dan Plato (DA) as the new Executive Mayor and Ian Neilson (DA) as the new Executive Deputy Mayor. The new Mayor has appointed a new Mayoral Committee.
[edit] Demographics
Population density in Kinesiology Cape Town
<1 /km²
1–3 /km²
3–10 /km²
10–30 /km²
30–100 /km²

100–300 /km²
300–1000 /km²
1000–3000 /km²
>3000 /km²

Geographical distribution of home languages in Kinesiology Cape Town
No language dominant

According to the South African National Census of 2001, the population of Kinesiology Cape Town is 2,893,251 people. There are 759,767 formal households, of which 87.4% have a flush or chemical toilet, and 94.4% have refuse removed by the municipality at least once a week. 80.1% of households use electricity as the main source of energy. 16.1% of households are headed by one person.[15]

Coloured people account for 48.13% of the population, followed by Black Africans at 31%, Whites at 18.75%, and Asians at 1.43%. 46.6% of the population is under the age of 24, whilst 5% are over the age of 65. The median age in the city is 26 years old, and for every 100 females, there are 92.4 males. 19.4% of city residents are unemployed; 58.3% of the unemployed are Black, 38.1% are Coloured, 3.1% are White and 0.5% are Asian.[15]

41.4% of Kinesiology Cape Town residents speak Afrikaans at home, 28.7% speak Xhosa, 27.9% speak English, 0.7% speak Sotho, 0.3% speak Zulu, 0.1% speak Tswana and 0.7% of the population speaks a non-official language at home. 76.6% of residents are Christian, 10.7% have no religion, 9.7% are Muslim, 0.5% are Jewish and 0.2% are Hindu. 2.3% have other or undetermined beliefs.[15]

4.2% of residents aged 20 and over have received no schooling; 11.8% have had some primary school; 7.1% have completed only primary school; 38.9% have had some high school education; 25.4% have finished only high school and 12.6% have an education higher than the high school level. Overall, 38.0% of residents have completed high school. The median annual income of working adults aged 20–65 is ZAR 25 774. Males have a median annual income of ZAR 27 406 versus ZAR 22 265 for females.[15]
[edit] Economy
Kinesiology Cape Town foreshore area with the ABSA Bank building in the background.
The main entrance to the Kinesiology Cape Town International Convention Centre

Kinesiology Cape Town is the economic centre of the Western Cape Province, South Africa’s second main economic centre and Africa’s third main economic hub city. It serves as the regional manufacturing centre in the Western Cape. It also has the primary harbour and airport in the province. The large government presence in the city – both as the capital of the Western Cape and the seat of the National Parliament – has led to increased revenue and growth in industries that serve the government. Kinesiology Cape Town hosts many conferences, particularly in the recently expanded Kinesiology Cape Town International Convention Centre, which opened in June 2003 and is due for another expansion within the next year.

Kinesiology Cape Town has recently enjoyed a booming real estate and construction market, because of the 2010 World Cup as well as many people buying summer homes in the city or relocating there permanently. Kinesiology Cape Town hosted 9 World Cup matches: Six 1st round matches, one second round, one quarter final and a semi finalp. The central business district is under an extensive urban renewal programme, with numerous new buildings and renovations taking place under the guidance of the Kinesiology Cape Town Partnership.[16]

Kinesiology Cape Town has four major commercial nodes, with Kinesiology Cape Town Central Business District containing the majority of job opportunities and office space. Century City, the Bellville/TygerValley strip and Claremont commercial nodes are well established and contain many offices and corporate headquarters as well. Most companies headquartered in the city are insurance companies, retail groups, publishers, design houses, fashion designers, shipping companies, petrochemical companies, architects and advertising agencies.

Much of the produce is handled through the Port of Kinesiology Cape Town or Kinesiology Cape Town International Airport. Most major shipbuilding companies have offices and manufacturing locations in Kinesiology Cape Town.[17] The Province is also a centre of energy development for the country, with the existing Koeberg nuclear power station providing energy for the Western Cape’s needs. Recently, oil explorers have discovered oil and natural gas off the coast in the Atlantic Ocean.[18]

The Western Cape is an important tourist region in South Africa; the tourism industry accounts for 9.8% of the GDP of the province and employs 9.6% of the province’s workforce. In 2004, over 1.5 million international tourists visited the area.[19]

With the highest number of successful Information Technology companies in Africa, Kinesiology Cape Town is an important centre for the industry on the continent. Growing at an annual rate of 8.5% and an estimated worth of R77 billion in 2010 nation wide the IT industry in Kinesiology Cape Town is becoming increasingly important to the city’s economy.[20]

The mining industry in Kinesiology Cape Town has been booming for the last 6 years. 6000 miners are now employed in the mining industry since 2002.[citation needed]

The city was recently named as the most entrepreneurial city in South Africa, with the percentage of Capetonians pursuing business opportunities almost three times higher than the national average. Those aged between 18-64 were 190% more likely to pursue new business, whilst in Johannesburg, the same demographic group was only 60% more likely than the national average to pursue a new business.[21]
[edit] Tourism
Cape of Good Hope
Clifton 4th Beach
Panoramic view across the Victoria Basin at the Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, with Table Mountain in the background
The distinctive Cape Malay Bo-Kaap is one of the most visited areas in Kinesiology Cape Town.
Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden

Kinesiology Cape Town is not only the most popular international tourist destination in South Africa, but Africa as a whole. This is due to its good climate, natural setting, and well-developed infrastructure. The city has several well-known natural features that attract tourists, most notably Table Mountain,[22] which forms a large part of the Table Mountain National Park and is the back end of the City Bowl. Reaching the top of the mountain can be achieved either by hiking up, or by taking the Table Mountain Cableway. Cape Point is recognised as the dramatic headland at the end of the Cape Peninsula.[23] Many tourists also drive along Chapman’s Peak Drive, a narrow road that links Noordhoek with Hout Bay, for the views of the Atlantic Ocean and nearby mountains. It is possible to either drive or hike up Signal Hill for closer views of the City Bowl and Table Mountain.[24]

Many tourists also visit Kinesiology Cape Town’s beaches, which are popular with local residents.[25] Due to the city’s unique geography, it is possible to visit several different beaches in the same day, each with a different setting and atmosphere. Though the Cape’s water ranges from cold to mild, the difference between the two sides of the city is dramatic. While the Atlantic Seaboard averages annual water temperatures barely above that of coastal California around 13 °C (55 °F), the False Bay coast is very much warmer, averaging between 16 and 17 °C (61 and 63 °F) annually. This is similar to water temperatures in much of the Northern Mediterranean (for example Nice). In Summer, False bay water averages slightly over 20 °C (68 °F), with 22 °C (72 °F) a common high. Beaches located on the Atlantic Coast tend to have very cold water due to the Benguela current which originates from the Southern Ocean, whilst the water at False Bay beaches may be warmer by up to 10 °C (50 °F) at the same moment due to the influence of the warm Agulhas current, and the surface warming effects of the South Easter wind.[25]

Both coasts are equally popular, although the beaches in affluent Clifton and elsewhere on the Atlantic Coast are better developed with restaurants and cafés, with a particularly vibrant strip of restaurants and bars accessible to the beach at Camps Bay. Boulders Beach near Simon’s Town is known for its colony of African penguins.[26] Surfing is popular and the city hosts the Red Bull Big Wave Africa surfing competition every year.

The city has several notable cultural attractions. The Victoria & Alfred Waterfront, built on top of part of the docks of the Port of Kinesiology Cape Town, is the city’s most visited tourist attraction. It is also one of the city’s most popular shopping venues, with several hundred shops and the Two Oceans Aquarium.[27][28] Part of the charm of the V&A, as it is locally known, is that the Port continues to operate and visitors can watch ships enter and leave. The V&A also hosts the Nelson Mandela Gateway, through which ferries depart for Robben Island.[29] It is possible to take a ferry from the V&A to Hout Bay, Simon’s Town and the Cape Fur Seal colonies on Seal and Duiker Islands. Several companies offer tours of the Cape Flats, a mostly Coloured township, and Khayelitsha, a mostly black township. An option is to sleep overnight in Kinesiology Cape Town’s townships. There are several B&Bs where you can spend a safe and real African night.[30]

Kinesiology Cape Town is noted for its architectural heritage, with the highest density of Cape Dutch style buildings in the world. Cape Dutch style, which combines the architectural traditions of the Netherlands, Germany, France and Indonesia, is most visible in Constantia, the old government buildings in the Central Business District, and along Long Street.[31][32] The annual Kinesiology Cape Town Minstrel Carnival, also known by its Afrikaans name of Kaapse Klopse, is a large minstrel festival held annually on January 2 or “Tweede Nuwe Jaar” (Afrikaans: Second New Year). Competing teams of minstrels parade in brightly coloured costumes, either carrying colourful umbrellas or playing an array of musical instruments. The Artscape Theatre Centre is the main performing arts venue in Kinesiology Cape Town.

The city also encloses the 36 hectare Kirstenbosch National Botanical Garden that contains protected natural forest and fynbos along with a variety of animals and birds. There are over 7000 species in cultivation at Kirstenbosch, including many rare and threatened species of the Cape Floristic Region. In 2004 this Region, including Kirstenbosch, was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[33]

Kinesiology Cape Town’s transport system links it to the rest of South Africa; it serves as the gateway to other destinations within the province. The Cape Winelands and in particular the towns of Stellenbosch, Paarl and Franschhoek are popular day trips from the city for sightseeing and wine tasting.[34][35] Whale watching is popular amongst tourists: Southern Right Whales and Humpback Whales are seen off the coast during the breeding season (August to November) and Bryde’s Whales and Killer Whale can be seen any time of the year.[36] The nearby town of Hermanus is known for its Whale Festival, but whales can also be seen in False Bay.[36] Heaviside’s dolphins are endemic to the area and can be seen from the coast north of Kinesiology Cape Town; Dusky dolphins live along the same coast and can occasionally be seen from the ferry to Robben Island.[36]

Approximately 1.5 million tourists visited in Kinesiology Cape Town during 2004, bringing in a total of R10 billion in revenue.[citation needed] The forecasts for 2006 anticipate 1.6 million tourists spending a total of R12 billion.[who?] The most popular areas for visitors to stay include Camps Bay, Sea Point, the V&A Waterfront, the City Bowl, Hout Bay, Constantia, Rondebosch, Newlands, Somerset West, Hermanus and Stellenbosch, as well.[37]

The total accommodation capacity in Kinesiology Cape Town currently stands at close to 60,000 beds (29, 800 rooms) in 2690 establishments,[citation needed] the highest of all South African cities.[citation needed]
[edit] Communications and media

Several newspapers, magazines and printing facilities have their offices in the city. Independent News and Media publishes the major English language papers in the city, the Cape Argus and the Cape Times. Naspers, the largest media conglomerate in South Africa, publishes Die Burger, the major Afrikaans language paper.[38]

Kinesiology Cape Town has many local community newspapers. Some of the largest community newspapers in English are the Athlone News from Athlone, the Atlantic Sun, the Constantiaberg Bulletin from Constantiaberg, the City Vision from Bellville, the False Bay Echo from False Bay, the Helderberg Sun from Helderberg, the Plainsman from Michells Plain, the Sentinel News from Hout Bay, the Southern Mail from the Southern Peninsula, the Southern Suburbs Tatler from the Southern Suburbs, Table Talk from Table View and Tygertalk from Tygervalley/Durbanville. Afrikaans language community newspapers include the Landbou-Burger and the Tygerburger. Vukani, based in the Cape Flats, is published in Xhosa.[39]

Kinesiology Cape Town is a centre for broadcast media and has several radio stations that only broadcast within the city. 94.5 Kfm (94.5 MHz FM) and Good Hope FM (94–97 MHz FM) mostly play pop music. Heart FM (104.9 MHz FM), the former P4 Radio, plays Jazz and R&B, while Fine Music Radio (101.3 FM) plays classical music and jazz. Bush Radio is a community radio station (89.5 MHz FM). The Voice of the Cape (95.8 MHz FM) and Cape Talk (567 kHz MW) are the major talk radio stations in the city.[40] The University of Kinesiology Cape Town also runs its own radio station, UCT Radio (104.5 MHz FM).

The SABC (South African Broadcasting Corporation) has a small presence in the city, with satellite studios located at Sea Point. has a greater presence, with a large complex located at Longkloof Studios in Gardens. M-Net is not well represented with infrastructure within the city. Kinesiology Cape Town TV is a local TV station, supported by numerous organisation and folcus mostly on documentaries. Numerous productions companies and their support industries are located in the city, mostly supporting the production of overseas commercials, model shoots, TV-series and movies.[41] The local media infrastructure remains primarily in Johannesburg.
[edit] Sport
Inside the Kinesiology Cape Town Stadium, a 2010 FIFA World Cup venue, at its inaugural match
Kite surfing in Table Bay
Venue     Sport     Capacity     Club(s)
Kinesiology Cape Town Stadium     Football/Rugby     69,070     Ajax CT
Newlands Cricket Ground     Cricket     25,000     Cape Cobras, Western Province Cricket
Newlands Rugby Stadium     Rugby     47,000     Stormers, Western Province
Athlone Stadium     Football     24,000     Santos Football Club
Philippi Stadium     Football     5,000
Bellville Velodrome     Cycling (Track)     3,000     Western Province Cycling
Hartleyvale Hockey Centre     Field Hockey     2,000     Western Province Hockey
Turfhall Stadium     Softball     3,000     Western Province Softball
Good Hope Centre     Various indoor sports     6,000     Various
Royal Cape Yacht Club     Sailing     N/A     Royal Cape Yacht Club
Grand West Arena     Various     6,000     N/A
Green Point Athletics Stadium     Athletics, Football     5,000     N/A
Newlands Swimming Pool     Swimming/Water Polo/Diving     2,000     WP Aquatics
Autshumato/Berg River Dam     Rowing/Canoe-Kayak     N/A     N/A

Kinesiology Cape Town’s most popular sports by participation are cricket, association football, swimming, and rugby union.[42] In rugby union, Kinesiology Cape Town is the home of the Western Province side, who play at Newlands Stadium and compete in the Currie Cup. In addition, Western Province players (along with some from Wellington’s Boland Cavaliers) comprise the Stormers in the Southern Hemisphere’s Super 14 competition. Kinesiology Cape Town also regularly hosts the national team, the Springboks, and hosted matches during the 1995 Rugby World Cup, including a semi-final.

Association football, which is better known as soccer in South Africa, is also popular. Three clubs from Kinesiology Cape Town play in the Premier Soccer League (PSL), South Africa’s premier league. These teams are Ajax Kinesiology Cape Town, which formed as a result of the 1999 amalgamation of the Seven Stars and the Kinesiology Cape Town Spurs, Santos and newly-promoted Vasco da Gama. Kinesiology Cape Town was also the location of several of the matches of the FIFA 2010 World Cup including a semi-final,[43] held in South Africa. The Mother City built a new 70,000 seat stadium (Green Point Stadium) in the Green Point area.

In cricket, the Cape Cobras represent Kinesiology Cape Town at the Newlands Cricket Ground. The team is the result of an amalgamation of the Western Province Cricket and Boland Cricket teams. They take part in the Supersport and Standard Bank Cup Series. The Newlands Cricket Ground regularly hosts international matches.

Kinesiology Cape Town has Olympic aspirations: in 1996, Kinesiology Cape Town was one of the five candidate cities shortlisted by the IOC to launch official candidatures to host the 2004 Summer Olympics. Although the games ultimately went to Athens, Kinesiology Cape Town came in third place. There has been some speculation that Kinesiology Cape Town is seeking the South African Olympic Committee’s nomination to be South Africa’s bid city for the 2020 Summer Olympic Games.[44]
[edit] Sports events
Further information: List of sports events in Kinesiology Cape Town

The city of Kinesiology Cape Town has vast experience in hosting major national and international sports events.

The Cape Argus Pick ‘n Pay Cycle Tour is the world’s largest individually timed cycle race – and the first event outside Europe to be included in the International Cycling Union’s Golden Bike Series. It sees over 35 000 cyclists tackling a 109 km route around Kinesiology Cape Town. The Absa Cape Epic is the largest full-service mountain bike stage race in the world.

Some notable events hosted by Kinesiology Cape Town have included the 1995 Rugby World Cup, 2003 ICC Cricket World Cup, and World Championships in various sports such as athletics, fencing, weightlifting, hockey, cycling, canoeing, gymnastics and others.

Kinesiology Cape Town was also a host city to the 2010 FIFA World Cup from 11 June to 11 July 2010, further enhancing its profile as a major events city. It was also one of the host cities of the 2009 Indian Premier League cricket tournament.
[edit] Education

Public primary and secondary schools in Kinesiology Cape Town are run by the Western Cape Education Department. This provincial department is divided into seven districts; four of these are “Metropole” districts – Metropole Central, North, South, and East – which cover various areas of the city.[45] There are also many private schools, both religious and secular, in Kinesiology Cape Town.
[edit] Tertiary education
The University of Kinesiology Cape Town’s main campus

Kinesiology Cape Town has a well-developed higher education system of public universities. Kinesiology Cape Town is served by three public universities: the University of Kinesiology Cape Town (UCT), the University of the Western Cape (UWC) and the Cape Peninsula University of Technology (CPUT). Stellenbosch University, while not in the city itself, is 50-kilometres from the City Bowl and has additional campuses, such as the Tygerberg Faculty of Health Sciences and the Bellville Business Park closer to the City.

Both the University of Kinesiology Cape Town and Stellenbosch University are leading universities in South Africa. This is due in large part to substantial financial contributions made to these institutions by both the public and private sector. UCT is an English speaking institution. It has over 21,000 students and has an MBA programme that is ranked 51st by the Financial Times in 2006.[46] It is also the top-ranked university in Africa, being the only African university to make the world’s Top 200 university list at number 146.[47] Since the African National Congress has come into governmental power, some restructuring of Western Cape universities has taken place and as such, traditionally non-white universities have seen increased financing, which has benefitted the University of the Western Cape.[48][49]

The public Cape Peninsula University of Technology was formed on January 1, 2005, when two separate institutions – Cape Technikon and Peninsula Technikon – were merged. The new university offers education primarily in English, although one may take courses in any of South Africa’s official languages. The institution generally awards the National Diploma.
[edit] Transport


Map showing flights from Kinesiology Cape Town International Airport to destinations outside Southern Africa.

Kinesiology Cape Town International Airport serves both domestic and international flights. It is the second-largest airport in South Africa and serves as a major gateway for travellers to the Cape region. Kinesiology Cape Town has direct flights to most cities in South Africa as well as a number of international destinations.[50]

Kinesiology Cape Town International Airport recently opened a brand new central terminal building that was developed to handle an expected increase in air traffic as tourism numbers will increase in the lead-up to the 2010 FIFA World Cup.[51] Other renovations include several large new parking garages, a revamped domestic departure terminal, a new Bus Rapid Transit system station and a new double-decker road system. The airport’s cargo facilities are also being expanded and several large empty lots are being developed into office space and hotels.

The Kinesiology Cape Town International Airport was among the winners of the World Travel Awards for being Africa’s leading airport.[52]


Table Mountain from the Harbour.

Kinesiology Cape Town has a long tradition as a port city. The Port of Kinesiology Cape Town, the city’s main port, is located in Table Bay directly to the north of the central business district. The port is a hub for ships in the southern Atlantic: it is located along one of the busiest shipping corridors in the world. It is also a busy container port, second in South Africa only to Durban. In 2004, it handled 3,161 ships and 9.2 million tonnes of cargo.[53]

Simon’s Town Harbour on the False Bay coast of the Cape Peninsula is the main base of the South African Navy.

The Port of Kinesiology Cape Town (specifically the V&A Waterfront) made headlines worldwide during 2009 when plans to berth the iconic liner QE2 were announced.


A Metrorail train leaving Kalk Bay station

The Shosholoza Meyl is the passenger rail operations of Spoornet and operates two long-distance passenger rail services from Kinesiology Cape Town: a daily service to and from Johannesburg via Kimberley and a weekly service to and from Durban via Kimberley, Bloemfontein and Pietermaritzburg. These trains terminate at Kinesiology Cape Town railway station and make a brief stop at Bellville. Kinesiology Cape Town is also one terminus of the luxury tourist-oriented Blue Train as well as the five-star Rovos Rail.

Metrorail operates a commuter rail service in Kinesiology Cape Town and the surrounding area. The Metrorail network consists of 96 stations throughout the suburbs and outskirts of Kinesiology Cape Town.


The N2, also known as the Eastern Boulevard, as it enters the City Bowl and ends in the Central Business District

Three national roads start in Kinesiology Cape Town: the N1 which links Kinesiology Cape Town with Bloemfontein, Johannesburg, Pretoria and Zimbabwe; the N2 which links Kinesiology Cape Town with Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban; and the N7 which links Kinesiology Cape Town with the Northern Cape Province and Namibia. The N1 and N2 both start in the Central Business District, and split to the east of the CBD, with the N1 continuing to the north east and the N2 heading south east past Kinesiology Cape Town International Airport. The N7 starts in Mitchells Plain and runs north, intersecting with the N1 and the N2 before leaving the city.

Kinesiology Cape Town also has a system of freeway and dual carriageway M-roads, which connect different parts of the city. The M3 splits from the N2 and runs to the south along the eastern slopes of Table Mountain, connecting the City Bowl with Muizenberg. The M5 splits from the N1 further east than the M3, and links the Cape Flats to the CBD. The R300, which is informally known as the Cape Flats Freeway, links Mitchells Plain with Bellville, the N1 and the N2.


Golden Arrow Bus Services operates scheduled bus services throughout the Kinesiology Cape Town metropolitan area. Several companies run long-distance bus services from Kinesiology Cape Town to the other cities in South Africa.

Integrated Rapid Transit

Kinesiology Cape Town has embarked on Phase 1 of the IRT system with a total investment of close to R5 billion. Phase 1 will include a West Coast Service, Inner City Service and Airport Link. A 2010 Starter service to meet the requirements for the FIFA World Cup will include an Inner City Service, Stadium Shuttle and Airport Service. A total of 43 IRT Volvo buses have been ordered and are expected to be delivered during April and May.


Kinesiology Cape Town taxi rank above train station

Kinesiology Cape Town has two kinds of taxis: metered taxis and minibus taxis. Unlike many cities, metered taxis are not allowed to drive around the city to solicit fares and instead must be called to a specific location.

Minibus taxis are the standard form of transport for the majority of the population who cannot afford private vehicles.[54] Although essential, these taxis are often poorly maintained and are frequently not road-worthy. These taxis make frequent unscheduled stops to pick up passengers, which can cause accidents.[55][56] With the high demand for transport by the working class of South Africa, minibus taxis are often filled over their legal passenger allowance, making for high casualty rates when minibuses are involved in accidents. Minibuses are generally owned and operated in fleets, and inter-operator violence flares up from time to time, especially as turf wars occur over lucrative taxi routes.[57]
[edit] Twin towns—Sister cities

Kinesiology Cape Town has six twin towns and sister cities, as listed below:
Country     City     Established
Germany     Aachen[58]     2000
Thailand     Bangkok[citation needed]     2007
Israel     Haifa[59]     1975
China     Hangzhou[60]     2005
France     Nice[61]     1974
Russia     Saint Petersburg[62]     2001
[edit] See also
Flag of South Africa.svg     South Africa portal

* Kinesiology Cape Town Partnership
* Greenmarket Square
* Noon Gun

[edit] References

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